Evolution of the Earth and Life

These signatures of life allow us to better understand the evolution of life on Earth.

Our best evidence and reasoning tell us that early life was single celled, while we now know of a variety of multicellular beings on Earth. When did the transition to multicellular life occur? What was involved in this process?

Extinctions on the global scale have occurred several times in Earth's history.

The minerals present throughout the Earth, in the crust, and at the surface have changed through time.

Understanding the chemistry of Earth's surface and oceans and atmosphere through time are necessary to better understand the history of life on our planet.

Beings dwell within the ground. How far down do they go? How does life fair in the world below the surface?

The hypothesis that life can be transferred between planetary bodies, often proposed to occur through planetary impact events. Panspermia literally means "seeds everywhere".

How did eukaryotic organisms arise? What were the processes and pathways that allowed for the first eukaryotes?